Zoologist, media consultant, and science writer, Dr Karl Shuker is also one of the best known cryptozoologists in the world. He is the author of such seminal works as Mystery Cats of the World (1989), The Lost Ark: New and Rediscovered Animals of the 20th Century (1993; greatly expanded in 2012 as The Encyclopaedia of New and Rediscovered Animals), Dragons: A Natural History (1995), In Search of Prehistoric Survivors (1995), The Unexplained (1996), From Flying Toads To Snakes With Wings (1997), Mysteries of Planet Earth (1999), The Hidden Powers of Animals (2001), The Beasts That Hide From Man (2003), Extraordinary Animals Revisited (2007), Dr Shuker's Casebook (2008), Karl Shuker's Alien Zoo: From the Pages of Fortean Times (2010), Cats of Magic, Mythology, and Mystery (2012), Mirabilis: A Carnival of Cryptozoology and Unnatural History (2013), Dragons in Zoology, Cryptozoology, and Culture (2013), The Menagerie of Marvels (2014), A Manifestation of Monsters (2015), Here's Nessie! (2016), and what is widely considered to be his cryptozoological magnum opus, Still In Search Of Prehistoric Survivors (2016) - plus, very excitingly, his first two long-awaited, much-requested ShukerNature blog books (2019, 2020).

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Wednesday 8 March 2017


Passenger pigeons (juvenile, left; male, centre; female, right), from Birds of New York by Louis Agassiz Fuertes, 1910 – did this species survive beyond 1914? (public domain)

The most numerous species of wild bird ever known was the phenomenally plentiful passenger pigeon Ectopistes migratorius, a dainty, slender-bodied, long-tailed bird with blue-grey head, neck, back, and wings, and cinnamon-pink underparts. It has been estimated that during the 19th Century’s early years, its total population contained between five and ten thousand million birds. Or to put it another way, this single species may have accounted for as much as 45 per cent of the entire bird population of America! One of the most evocative descriptions of its immense numbers during its heyday appeared in The Mirror of Literature, Amusement, and Instruction for 16 November 1822:
The accounts of the enormous flocks in which the passenger, or wild pigeons, fly about in North America, seem to an European like the tales of Baron Munchausen; but the travellers are ‘all in a story.’ In Upper Canada, says Mr. Howison, in his entertaining ‘Sketches,’ you may kill 20 or 30 at one shot, out of the masses which darken the air. And in the United States, according to Wilson, the ornithologist, they sometimes desolate and lay waste a tract of country 40 or 50 miles long, and 5 or 6 broad, by making it their breeding-place. While in the state of Ohio, Mr. Wilson saw a flock of these birds which extended, he judged, more than a mile in breadth, and continued to pass over his head at the rate of one mile in a minute, during four hours — thus making its whole length about 240 miles. According to his moderate estimate, this flock contained two thousand two hundred and thirty millions, two hundred and seventy-two pigeons.

A flock of passenger pigeons being hunted in Louisiana, The Illustrated Shooting and Dramatic News, 1875 (public domain)

It seems inconceivable that less than a century after the above report had been published the passenger pigeon had been completely exterminated, but this is precisely what happened.

As a result of an unutterably ruthless, relentless programme of persecution (on a scale unparalleled even in man’s nefarious history of wildlife destruction), perpetrated by trigger-happy gun-toters attracted by the awesome spectacle of the birds’ mass migrations, by 1 September 1914 only one solitary specimen remained alive. This was a 29-year-old hen bird named ‘Martha Washington’, exhibited at Cincinnati Zoo. And shortly after noon on that fateful September day, this last humble survivor of an ostensibly indomitable, indestructible species died. The unthinkable had happened - the passenger pigeon, whose vast migrating flocks had virtually eclipsed the sun in the time of the great American painter John James Audubon, was no more.

Martha Washington, the last known passenger pigeon, pictured alive on left, and as a taxiderm specimen at Washington DC's Smithsonian Institution on right (public domain)

Officially, that is. For at least another decade, alleged sightings of passenger pigeons were frequently reported, but scientists tended to dismiss these as mistaken observations of the smaller but superficially similar mourning dove Zenaida macroura, still a common species today. In September 1929, however, a remarkable report emerged that could not be discarded so readily. This was the month in which Michigan University bacteriologist Prof. Philip Hadley, in the company of a Mr Foard, an old friend familiar with the land, had been hunting in a virtually uninhabited wilderness nestling within Michigan’s northern peninsula.

They had been hunting there for some time when Foard drew Hadley’s attention to a bird perched close by, and declared that it was a passenger pigeon - which he had observed in enormous numbers when younger. Needless to say, Hadley turned at once to spy this exceedingly unexpected specimen, but just as he caught sight of it the bird took flight. Nevertheless, it did seem to him to be pigeon-like in form, with a pointed tail, and he clearly believed the incident to be of significance, because he sent details to the eminent US journal Science, which in turn judged it to be important enough to warrant publication in its issue of 14 February 1930.

Passenger pigeon, from Pigeons, Sir William Jardine, 1835 (public domain)

Within his letter, Hadley also referred to a couple of other recent sightings, documented a month earlier by Kendrick Kimball in the Detroit News (5 January). One of these sightings had been made on 10 June 1929, by Robert H. Wright of Munissing, Michigan. Wright was convinced that the pair of birds that he saw at close range on Highway M-28, about 16 miles from Munissing, were passenger pigeons. In the other sighting, made between Indianapolis and Kokomo while driving from Florida, Dr Samuel R. Landes spotted a flock of approximately 15 birds that he readily identified as passenger pigeons. Both Wright and Landes were familiar with this species’ appearance — like so many others, they had shot hundreds of them during the late 1870s.

Nonetheless, the last confirmed wild specimen was shot in 1899, at Babcock, Wisconsin, so is it really possible that the birds reported three decades later by the eyewitnesses above were truly passenger pigeons? It seems rather unlikely, at least at first, because after the last major flocks had been slaughtered (in 1878), stragglers did not survive long, and matings became ever fewer. It seemed as if the species could only persist and reproduce when present in huge flocks. At the same time, of course, the familiarity of the eyewitnesses with the species makes their testimony all that more difficult to discount.

A pair of taxiderm passenger pigeons at San Antonio, Texas (© Jonathan Downes/CFZ)

Perhaps certain fairly secluded localities did house a last few specimens, which existed undetected beyond the date of Martha’s death, and possibly even mated every now and then, and which were encountered only when their flights traversed areas frequented by humans, or when humans occasionally passed by their hideaways. Yet without the immense congregations necessary to provide the stimulus for normal, full-scale reproduction, they could surely do no more than extend their species’ survival by a few years. Long before the last individual had died, whether in 1914 or in the 1930s, the passenger pigeon’s descent into extinction had already begun, irrevocably and inevitably, with the disappearance of its vast flocks. After that, it could only be a matter of time.

Surely, then, the ‘passenger pigeon’ spied in March 1965 at Homer, Michigan, by Irene Llewellyn (Fate, September 1965) and another spied the same year by Stella Fenell at New Jersey’s Park Ridge (Fate, January 1966), not to mention an intriguing series of recently-claimed passenger pigeon sightings chronicled online in 2014, 2015, and 2016 by the website HoriconBirds.com, were only mourning doves ... weren’t they?

John James Audubon's famous painting of a pair of passenger pigeons, from his spectacular tome The Birds of America, 1827-1838 (public domain)

An Antipodean equivalent of sorts is the flock pigeon Phaps (=Histriophaps) histrionica, also known as the flock bronzewing. In the 1800s, huge flocks, containing millions of birds, lived on the grass plains of New South Wales and Queensland. Today, though, it is a relatively rare species (it was once thought to be extinct), categorised as Threatened by the IUCN.

This time, however, the cause is not man himself but his animals. The flock pigeon is a seed-eater, but generations of grazing cattle and sheep have prevented the plains’ grass from seeding adequately.

A flock pigeon (© Christopher Walker/Wikipedia – CC BY-SA 3.0 licence)

Of course, courtesy of the extraordinary technological advances taking place daily in the modern-day world that we all inhabit, perhaps we should never say never in relation to the prospect of one day seeing bona fide passenger pigeons alive and well again. On 8 February 2012, a meeting was convened at Harvard Medical School in Boston, Massachusetts, by a group of interested researchers from the non-profit genetic research organisation Revive & Restore, to explore the technical plausibility of resurrecting this iconic species via genomic engineering, as well as to examine the potential cultural, social, political, and ecological ramifications of restoring it to life and perhaps even reintroducing it into the wild. After presentations by a range of participants and discussions concerning their contributions, the group concluded that the genetic technique proposed should be tested to see how effective it may be, and how it could be improved, with this goal in mind.

So who knows? Maybe one day the passenger pigeon will indeed return, if no longer to darken the skies with vast flocks as in former times but at least to live again in the land where it rightfully belongs and where it would certainly have remained had its existence not been wilfully extinguished by our own species.

Passenger pigeons, frontispiece to The Passenger Pigeon, 1907 (public domain)

Finally: by an extraordinary quirk of fate, one of the last passenger pigeon individuals whose demise in the wild state was formally documented was actually shot not anywhere in the New World but, remarkably, in the English countryside instead. An escapee from captivity, it was shot in Yorkshire during 1876, as recorded in  T.A. Coward's book The Birds of the British Isles and Their Eggs - Second Series (1920). Moreover, this was just one of at least eight passenger pigeon specimens recorded from the wild in Great Britain.

Were all of them merely captive escapees, or might one or more have been genuine transatlantic vagrants? Sadly, it is highly unlikely that we shall ever know the answer to this intriguing question. My grateful thanks to correspondent Philip Jensen for kindly bringing this fascinating snippet of information to my attention.

Passenger pigeon, Plate 23 in Vol 1 of The Natural History of Carolina, Florida and Bahamas by Mark Catesby, George Edwards, 1754 (public domain)

For my tribute in verse to the passenger pigeon, please click here; and for its philatelic prominence, please click here.

This ShukerNature blog article is excerpted and expanded from my book Extraordinary Animals Revisited.


  1. Wonderful. I had no idea about these sightings. I sure do hope that there are some of them left and that their numbers will grow.
    Thank you for this info.

    1. Thank you, I'm glad that it was of interest to you.

  2. While I have seen a lot of claims that the passenger pigeon would only reproduce in large flocks and thus after its population had dropped below a certain 'critical mass' its extinction was guaranteed, I have also seen the claim that the huge flocks of passenger pigeons in the 19th century were themselves not 'normal' for the species, but the result of an unstable population boom that was itself caused by the effects of European settlers on the North American ecosystem (I think in particular the mass extermination of the American bison, and also possibly the loss of Native American traditional agriculture). I'm not sure whether or not these claims are compatible with each other, but a single species making up 45% of the entire bird population of a continent, and forming such enormous flocks that they must have represented mass movements of significant percentages of the population of even that ultra-numerous species, does seem like a somewhat 'unbalanced' or unsustainable situation.

    Another odd thing that I remember from cryptozoology forums that were online 15 or so years ago was people claiming sightings of 'passenger pigeons' that they described as "a pigeon the size of a raven" or "a pigeon the size of a Red-tailed Hawk". I don't know what those were, but I'm sure they couldn't have been passenger pigeons, as the real passenger pigeon was only about the same size (though longer-tailed) as an ordinary domestic pigeon. (I wonder if these 'sightings' were influenced by a belief that every extinct species must somehow be bigger and 'more impressive' than its living counterparts?)

    1. Yes, I've read about the notion of the passenger pigeon being an unstable species, which seems quite tenable, and when impacted upon by wholesale destruction by humans this would have actively worked against its longterm survival. The sightings and claims of passenger pigeons as big as ravens or hawks is new to me - I've never seen any such reports myself - but I agree that the real passenger pigeon was certainly not as big as this.

  3. So why exactly were they hunted to extinction: "fun"; edible?

    1. Both, sadly - for sport, to see how many could be shot, and because they were tasty.

  4. Another interesting article. Reminded me of a very good short story I read not too long ago - "A Flock Of Birds" by James Van Pelt (I read it in the 20th edition of Gardner Dozois' "The Year's Best Science Fiction.) Well worth the time to find.

  5. Honestly I do believe that the Passenger Pigeon might be alive in somewhere, I live on Brazil and we've had the great surprise of discovery after 75 years old of a specie of dove the Blue Eyed Ground Dove, so USA is so big why not too. I hope so !!

  6. Excellent article. Thanks for sharing. It is fascinating to wonder if the passenger pigeon may have survived in some isolated regions for some years. I guess we'll never know for sure.

  7. In 2010 in Elysian Park, l saw a flock of about 5 birds that flew like pigeons but flew into a tree! Their movements were pigeons but their color were not. I know because l raised pigeons. Never seen a flock of pigeons living in park trees. Los Angeles.

  8. I spotted a pigeon today about an hour ago or so, and it was identical to a passenger pigeon. It was a fat pigeon and a pointed tail with white tops, brown bird with what looked like bluishness on its sides. I caught videographic evidence of this bird, when I saw it closer I didnt get to record that part but it looked a lot more like a passenger pigeon. The video is not too too good but I think it might have enough detail to convince some people. No one else in my family cares I'm the only one. I'll post the video if I can figure out how to

  9. Many years ago, my great grandmother told me a story that during the 1930s she was working in a cherry orchard and discovered a recently shot bird at the base of one of the trees. She picked it up and examined it and described it as dove-like and of a slate blue-gray color with a reddish breast. She firmly believed that it was a male Passenger Pigeon that had been feeding on cherries in the orchard, adding that she had seen other similar birds in the same orchard. My great grandmother was a great outdoorswoman, the daughter of a federal game warden, an avid observer of wild birds and bred Domestic Pigeons, poultry, game birds and just about anything else with feathers. Though I do not recall the location of the orchard she spoke of, my great grandmother was born in the traditional range of the Passenger Pigeon and I suspect the orchard was probably either in eastern Wyoming or Nebraska. As a pigeon breeder for over 45 years, the Passenger Pigeon has always intrigued me. From a personal point of view, I find a total extinction of the species difficult to fathom and hard to accept. Though it is usually accepted that the species required a large colony structure to get by in the world, many early accounts also clearly describe much smaller breeding groups in addition to the immense breeding colonies usually described. My personal belief, based on pigeon and dove behavior, as well as numerous sightings and other incidents, is that the species is "still out there", but that its numbers are small and they remain illusive.

    1. I feel the same. Seems like it would be almost impossible to say that absolutely no more of a species exists. I have always believed that the passenger pigeon survives in small numbers.

    2. Hi. I have always loved reading about the passenger pigeon. Good article. I am not crazy. I truly believe that I saw a flock of about 10 passenger pigeons flying overhead along the Allegheny River in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania back in the 1980's. I wrote a letter to Cornell University but nobody responded. Also, I was homeless and living in the woods behind the Walmart in Pineville, Missouri. I truly believe that there was a male passenger pigeon living near the lake back there. It is a small town near a state forest. Also, I am currently homeless and living in the woods along Willow Creek outside of Tyler, Texas. I have been in the area for the last 4 years. I truly believe that a male passenger pigeon lives along this Willow Creek. I am listening to him calling now. A haunting and melodious Tret Tret Tret Tret Tret. Sad he keeps calling never to find a female. I have not seen any other birds of his kind around here. I truly believe that the passenger pigeon does still exist in the wild. I don't understand why, but not too many people seem to care if it is still here. To contact me my email address is tdelehanty97@gmail.com. I hope someday the passenger pigeon returns to numbers enough to be widely visible like the many Cardinals that fly through these woods. There is something special about the passenger pigeon.