Zoologist, media consultant, and science writer, Dr Karl Shuker is also one of the best known cryptozoologists in the world. He is the author of such seminal works as Mystery Cats of the World (1989), The Lost Ark: New and Rediscovered Animals of the 20th Century (1993; greatly expanded in 2012 as The Encyclopaedia of New and Rediscovered Animals), Dragons: A Natural History (1995), In Search of Prehistoric Survivors (1995), The Unexplained (1996), From Flying Toads To Snakes With Wings (1997), Mysteries of Planet Earth (1999), The Hidden Powers of Animals (2001), The Beasts That Hide From Man (2003), Extraordinary Animals Revisited (2007), Dr Shuker's Casebook (2008), Karl Shuker's Alien Zoo: From the Pages of Fortean Times (2010), Cats of Magic, Mythology, and Mystery (2012), Mirabilis: A Carnival of Cryptozoology and Unnatural History (2013), Dragons in Zoology, Cryptozoology, and Culture (2013), The Menagerie of Marvels (2014), A Manifestation of Monsters (2015), Here's Nessie! (2016), and what is widely considered to be his cryptozoological magnum opus, Still In Search Of Prehistoric Survivors (2016) - plus, very excitingly, his first two long-awaited, much-requested ShukerNature blog books (2019, 2020).

Dr Karl Shuker's Official Website - http://www.karlshuker.com/index.htm

IMPORTANT: To view a complete, regularly-updated listing of my ShukerNature blog's articles (each one instantly clickable), please click HERE!

IMPORTANT: To view a complete, regularly-updated listing of my published books (each one instantly clickable), please click HERE!

IMPORTANT: To view a complete, regularly-updated listing of my Eclectarium blog's articles (each one instantly clickable), please click HERE!

IMPORTANT: To view a complete, regularly-updated listing of my Starsteeds blog's poetry and other lyrical writings (each one instantly clickable), please click HERE!

IMPORTANT: To view a complete, regularly-updated listing of my Shuker In MovieLand blog's articles (each one instantly clickable), please click HERE!

Search This Blog



Saturday 12 January 2013


Detailed reconstruction of the possible appearance in life of the hippoturtleox (Tim Morris)

Due to the political situation, much of Tibet's terrain and freshwater bodies of water are little-known or entirely off-limits to Westerners. Occasionally, however, a highly intriguing report emerges that suggests there may be some fascinating zoological discoveries waiting to be made here.

One such report briefly hit the headlines worldwide in September 1984, a mere 12 years after the creature itself had been captured. It claimed that back in 1972, a truly bizarre beast had been caught alive in Tibet's Lake Duobuzhe. It was described as having an ox-like body with hippopotamus-like skin, the legs of a turtle and a pair of short curled horns on its head. As a result of its composite morphology, it was duly dubbed a hippoturtleox by American cryptozoologist J. Richard Greenwell when documenting it within the Spring 1986 issue of the International Society of Cryptozoology's newsletter.

Delightful illustration of the hippoturtleox (Thylacine333/deviantart.com)

Tragically, however, following its capture this extraordinary-sounding creature was shot and bayoneted to death by some Chinese soldiers, then dragged to a nearby village, but the subsequent fate of its scientifically-priceless carcase is unknown (though it is quite likely to have been eaten – an ignominious fate shared by several other cryptozoological specimens down through the years). Nothing more has ever been reported about Lake Duobuzhe's hippoturtleox, and nothing like it has ever been reported since. Strangely, I have been unable to locate Lake Duobuzhe online or in any atlas either, although there are literally thousands of lakes occurring on the Tibetan plateau, so this is not necessarily surprising. It is believed that the area used to be under the ocean, which then retreated, explaining the presence of so many lakes in the area today, a number of which are filled with saltwater.

Always assuming that the story was indeed genuine, what could this creature have been? Its body's general shape, the appearance of its skin, and certainly its limbs are all reminiscent of a large freshwater chelonian – but if this is indeed what it was, how can its horns be explained? Could they have been a pair of specialised respiratory snorkels, perhaps? Or might they even have been real horns? After all, a horned chelonian would not be without precedent.

Cast of skeleton of the extinct Lord Howe Island horned tortoise Meiolania platyceps (Unnormalized/Wikipedia)

Until as recently as 2000 years ago, the island of New Caledonia, situated to the east of Australia, was still home to an extraordinary cryptodire tortoise called Meiolania mackayi, whose skull bore a cluster of protuberances, including a pair of large, laterally-pointing horns. Much bigger Meiolania species formerly lived in Australia too (M. brevicollis), as well as on Lord Howe Island (M. platyceps), and Vanuatu (M. damelipi), but these all became extinct before their New Caledonian counterpart.

Ninjemys oweni - a small Meiolania-related Pleistocene horned tortoise from Queensland, depicted on an Australian postage stamp issued in 1997

Without a body, preserved tissues, a photograph, or even an eyewitness drawing to examine, Tibet's hippoturtleox seems destined to remain an unclassifiable anomaly within the chronicles of cryptozoology – unless, one day, a second specimen appears. If it does, we can but hope that it will be treated more humanely than its mystifying species' previous representative.

Head-on view of the extinct Lord Howe Island horned tortoise Meiolania platyceps (David Morgan-Mar/Wikipedia)

This ShukerNature blog post is an excerpt from my forthcoming book Mirabilis: A Carnival of Cryptozoology and Unnatural History (Anomalist Books: New York, 2013).


  1. There is an Asian ox-like animal from the medieval bestiary which quite correspond : Bonnacon.


  2. Hi Bos, Thanks for your response. However, the bonnacon is based upon the European bison, as reflected in the latter species' scientific name, which is Bison bonasus. Also, the bonnacon was terrestrial, with normal limbs, whereas the hippoturtleox has flipper-like feet. All the best, Karl

  3. Maybe it was just a very large insect.

  4. If you want a Tibetanist's idea, it sounds like what Tibetans might call the chulang, or 'water ox,' which corresponds to Chu-glang in Wylie transcription, and ཆུ་གླང་ in Tibetan script. When we approaching the famous Yamdrok lake, I asked the driver if anything lives there. He said the only thing living there was the chulang. Scientifically speaking, I think the only known denizen of this semi-salty lake is a special species of catfish, but who knows? If you're interested, I wrote a little bit about the water ox in an entry for May 18, 2012. Have fun with that.

  5. Crystal Kuecker18 July 2013 at 00:13

    Karl, I have been looking into and am interested in the reference you have made to the Hippoturtleox, with all due respect to American Cryptozoologist J. Richard Greenwell's research in Tibet's "Lake Duobuzhe". I understand the original ISC is no longer active. Do you have an original document, book, or web reference that I may review, or will the full documentation be in Mirabilis: A Carnival of Cryptozoology and Unnatural History.

  6. The source of my info re the hippoturtleox was a very short news report, just one paragraph long, written by Greenwell and appearing in the ISC Newsletter issue noted by me above. His source was, I believe, an equally brief item from a Chinese newspaper, but I haven't seen this myself.

    1. Crystal Kuecker18 July 2013 at 01:52

      My most immediate question, based upon your reply is, did Greenwell relate in his paragraph, whether an interpreter, field guide, or the current locals describe the lake in name, and did Greenwell write down what was verbally described to him, possibly writing down what it phonetically sounded like to him, or was it properly written down in the current dialect and native language. I am referring specifically to Lake Duobuzhe. I am currently researching two 'candidate lakes', if, in my theory, Greenwell wrote down phonetically, what lake was described to him.

      Thanks so much for writing such a fascinating article!

  7. No, as I say, Greenwell merely re-reported a news item that had appeared in a Chinese newspaper. It wasn't a report given to him in the field.

  8. Karl - The description has always reminded me of Paleoparadoxia... minus the horns of course. A highly whimsical and improbable scenario, I grant you...